The RESEARCH

Human Restoration Project explores a variety of progressive thought to move all learners toward humanity through passion, service, and empowerment.

We recommend starting with writings by any of these educators: Linda Darling-Hammond, John Dewey, Susan Engel, Paulo Freire, Henry Giroux, John Holt, bell hooks, Alfie Kohn, Jonathan Kozol, Deborah Meier, Maria Montessori, and Jean Piaget. We welcome criticism and remain open to dialogue on expanding our viewpoints further. Further, we highlight books each month that best illustrate progressive practice.

Please report broken links to us. Note: all research should be looked at through a critical lens, many research studies fail to be replicated or have mixed results.

Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education

Ladson-Billings & Tate IV

1995

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

An overview of understanding school inequity through the lens of race, including arguments of law and social studies.

The Pedagogy of Poverty and its Antidote: PBL

Lamar

2019

Experiential Learning

An overview of how PBL specifically impacts low-SES students.

Evidence is the new catchword in education, but it requires some scrutiny

Lambert

2020

General

A challenge to the term “evidence-based” and how we view research in education.

Beating the Odds: Teaching Middle and High School Students to Read and Write Well

Langer

2000

Promoting Literacy

Demonstrates that deeper thinking, extensive discussion, deep-reading of text, and experiential learning outperformed traditional schools focused on test prep on critical thinking and learning.

“A wave of graduate programs drops the GRE application requirement."

Langin

2019

Eliminating Standardized Testing

Graduate programs around the United States are dropping GRE requirements in response to studies showing little correlation between GRE scores and success in graduate school.

Study: Billions of dollars in annual teacher training is largely a waste

Layton

2015

Supporting Teachers and PD Reform

Finds the average cost of large districts per teacher is $18,000 on PD, which is mostly unappreciated or ill-received.

A Punishing Decade for School Funding

Leachman et. al.

2017

Supporting Teachers and PD Reform

On the decreased funding of schools and the negative impact across the education system.

Why do teachers leave?

Learning Policy Institute

2016

Supporting Teachers and PD Reform

Provides solutions on how to solve the teacher exodus from schools, citing that 2/3rds of teachers leave the classroom each year for reasons other than pay.

Response to Assessment Feedback: The Effects of Grades, Praise, and Source of Information

Lipnevich & Smith

2008

Ungrading

Detailed feedback without grades was shown to have the most improvement on future student work.

Student and peer assessment in action

Logan

2009

Ungrading

Findings demonstrate that although peer and self assessment initially take a long period to implement (requiring time for reflection and general unfamiliarity), students have fundamental gains in self-critical leading.

Writing to the Rubric: Lingering Effects of Traditional Standardized Testing on Direct Writing Assessment

Mabry

199

Ungrading

Summary of how rubrics undermine the purpose of expression and creative thinking involved in the writing process.

Buffering the Negative Impact of Poverty on Youth: The Power of Purpose in Life

Machell et. al.

2016

Purpose-Finding

Teenagers who live in poverty, who often face increased antisocial and decreased prosocial behavior, can alleviate and escape from these mindsets by finding a purpose in life - developing skills to achieve in spite of adversity.

Mindfulness for Students Classified with Emotional/Behavior Disorder

Malow & Vance

2016

Social Emotional Learning

An investigation into utilizing mindfulness in the classroom among adolescents that showcased increased "personal mastery" of content.

When is Homework Worth the Time?: Evaluating the Association Between Homework and Achievement in High School Science and Math

Maltese & Tai

2012

Eliminating Homework

States that mathematics and science homework had only significant relevance to standardized testing, not obtaining high grades in a classroom - the implication being that homework's negative impact on students is only helping on standardized tests.

Zero-Tolerance Policies and the School to Prison Pipeline

Maxime

2017

Restorative Justice

The case against zero-tolerance policies in schools and alternative discipline practices “look to holistically develop [students] into positive, contributing members of society.”

When School Goes Home: Some Problems in the Organization of Homework

McDermott et. al.

1984

Eliminating Homework

Relates the connectedness of high pressure schooling and home life, “The home appeared to be so well-integrated with the school that homework tended to recreate the problems of school, such as status degradation, for low achievers.”

Deep, Deep, Deep Inside We're All Friends

McGraw

2012

Cooperation and Soft Skills

A study that involves a group of 2nd grade girls and how schools interact with their relationship building. Suggestions are made to make learning more collaborative, with more authentic time given to developing relationships.

Student Self-Assessment: The Key to Stronger Student Motivation and Higher Achievement

McMillan & Hearn

2008

Ungrading

A summary overview of self-assessment and its usage in the classroom, including tendencies toward mastery and reflective thinking. Provides multiple stages of implementation, a lengthy amount of research studies, and highlights the benefits of its usage. Noted are the benefits to intrinsic motivation as a result of taking control of one’s learning.

Still Separate, Still Unequal: Teaching about School Segregation and Educational Inequality

Meatto

2019

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

Six activities/lessons with supplemental resources for teachers interested in investigating school segregation and educational inequality with their students.

Culturally Responsive Classroom Management Strategies

Metropolitan Center for Urban Education

2008

Restorative Justice

Breaks down how personal lens and bias must be examined and facilitated within the discipline system through a series of steps.

Typical physics Ph.D. admissions criteria limit access to underrepresented groups but fail to predict doctoral completion

Miller

2019

Eliminating Standardized Testing

Finds that doctoral students’ completion of the doctoral program are not tied to completion or performance on the GRE.

Liberating Grades/Liberating Assessment

Miller

2008

Ungrading

Miller conducts an analysis of their class and their adoption of ungrading, and provides a summary of “liberating” assessment and why it does/does not work.

A Second Look at Grading and Classroom Performance: Report of a Research Study

Moeller & Reschke

1993

Ungrading

Data found shows that there was no additional motivation from grading for any test performance.

A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety

Moffitt et. al.

2011

Self-Determination

Details how low self-control in life leads to overall decreased opportunities and outcomes. The study suggests that universal programs and steps be taken to increase the teaching of self-control/direction from a young age.

Funds of Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms

Moll et. al.

1992

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

Study of “participatory pedagogy” - where families and the community were brought into educational framework, establishing a symbiotic relationship of teacher/community/parent/guardian.

The Discovery of the Child

Montessori

1986 (Translation)

Self-Determination

An introduction to the "Montessori Method" - a fully peer-taught and choice-based curriculum employed in Montessori schools throughout the world.

Creative Inquiry: From Instrumental Knowing to Love of Knowledge

Montuori

1998

Cooperation and Soft Skills

An outline of the practice “social creativity” which runs counter to the traditional “drill and kill” mantra found in schools. Montouri comments on “tools that kill” creativity in schools.

The Testing Culture and the Persistence of High Stakes Testing Reforms

Moses & Nanna

2007

Eliminating Standardized Testing

Argument against the "high stakes testing culture" and its dangers to the educational curricula.

Academic Co-creative Inquiry: Creating Inclusive Processes for Learning

Napan

2010

Cooperation and Soft Skills

An outline of cooperative inquiry to engage in the human condition. A study was performed which showcased high engagement, positive feedback, a high standard of assessment, and increased collaboration.

Failing Grades for Retention

Natriello

1998

Ungrading

Demonstrates how there is a negative correlation between low grades and retaining students.

The Development and Impact of High Stakes Testing

Natriello & Pallas

1999

Eliminating Standardized Testing

A history of high stakes testing in the United States which calls for a movement away from standardized testing as there is plausible research that shows ethnic and gender demotivation casual links to academic struggles on these tests.

Peer / Self Assessment and Student Learning

Ndoye

2017

Ungrading

Demonstrates the efficacy of using self (and peer) reflection through sampled graduate students. Not only did students have increased academic performance, but also higher motivation, understanding of the purpose of the course, and a more supportive learning environment.

Comparison of Standardized Test Scores from Traditional Classrooms and Those Using Problem-Based Learning

Needham

2010

Experiential Learning

Data showcasing how 6th grade students performed just as well on standardized tests via PBL-delivery vs. traditional-delivery. Research also showcases that students learned more skills via PBL-delivery.

The Impact of a Junior High School Community Intervention Project: Moving Beyond the Testing Juggernaut and Into a Community of Creative Learners

Nelson et. al.

2012

Eliminating Standardized Testing

Demonstrates how bringing in the surrounding community can increase morale, relationships, and lower absence rates. Overall, community involvement showed drastic increases in a measurement of "school culture" - which was adverse to the demands of standardized testing.

A Different Way of Viewing History teaching

Neumann

2010

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

A guide to how historical content should be framed to make learning relevant and how large-scale, long-duration changes shape the human experience.

High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act

Nichols et. al.

2005

Eliminating Standardized Testing

High-stakes testing is shown to have absolutely no effect on student learning and study concludes that this style of testing should be removed.

Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and Student Perspective

Nowacki

2013

Ungrading

Based on doctoral candidates, students who received a traditional portfolio grade did slightly better, but had increased stress. Notably, students felt they had more self-assurance from receiving a grade, making the case for better feedback mechanisms.

Learning from Latino Teachers

Ochoa

2007

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

Stories and research surrounding creating equitable schools from the perspective of Latinx teachers and Latrinx student populations.

Understanding LGBTQ+ Identity: A Toolkit for Educators

PBS Learning Media

N.D.

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

A collection of readings, media, and resources for educators and students to understand LGBTQ+ identity.

Classroom Applications of Research on Self-Regulated Learning

Paris & Paris

2001

Self-Determination

Overviews each practice teachers can take to increase self-regulated and determination in their classroom for the benefit of students.

Work That Matters: A teacher’s guide to project-based learning

Patton & Robin

20112

Experiential Learning

A comprehensive overview of PBL, featuring real projects designed by educators and students.

Mindfulness Practices and Children's Emotional and Mental Well-Being

Peacock

2015

Social Emotional Learning

A heavily researched account on the benefits of mindfulness in the classroom, from statistical data to actual examples of practice.

Recess: Its Role in Education and Development

Pellegrini

2005

Free Play

Detailed study on the importance of recess (and breaks in general) and why overscheduling is dangerous for our students

The Role of Recess in Primary School

Pellegrini

2005

Free Play

Research comprised and featured in its book by the same author, recognizing the importance of play and socialization in recess.

Pressure From Above and Pressure From Below as Determinants of Teachers’ Motivation and Teaching Behaviors

Pelletier et. al.

2002

Self-Determination

The more a teacher feels pressured from above (by admin) and/or below (by students), the less likely they are to allow for self-determination in the classroom and in-turn, the more controlling they are.

Anxiety and depression top list of problems teens see among their peers

Pew Research Center

2018

General

Anxiety and depression is a major or minor problem for 96% of teen’s communities, along with bullying, poverty, drug addiction, alcohol use, poverty, teen pregnancy, and gangs as a major or minor problem for the majority.

Trauma-Informed Classrooms

Pickens & Tschopp

2017

General

A publication detailing the background, research, and implementation of trauma-informed districts and classrooms.

The Role of Goal Orientation in Self-Regulated Learning

Pintrich

2000

Self-Determination

An overview of how self-regulated learning should be coordinated in a classroom for greater student outcomes.

Do Grades Shape Students' School Engagement? The Psychological Consequences of Report Card Grades at the Beginning of Secondary School

Poorthuis

2015

Ungrading

Students who were presented their grade cards halfway through the year showcased decreased motivation, engagement, and performance after receiving a low marking.

Discussing transgender topics within gay-straight alliances: Factors that could promote more frequent conversations

Poteat et. al.

2018

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

Details the importance of talking about transgender/gender diversity rights and its impact.

Eight Year Study

Progressive Education Association

1942

General

One of the most in-depth analysis of progressive education and the impact it has on students in many facets of life.

Kids these days: Why the youth of today seem lacking

Protzko & Schooler

2019

General

Study demonstrates those who see "kids these days" in a negative light have continued this pattern for millennia.

Americans Are Stressed Out, and It Is Getting Worse

Psychology Today, citing APA

2018

General

Over 50% of American 15-21 year olds reported depression, lacking energy or motivation. 1/3rd are stressed about basic necessities, money, hunger, etc.

Why Grades Engender Performance-Avoidance Goals: The Mediating Role of Autonomous Motivation

Pulfrey & Buchs

2011

Ungrading

Multiple experiments reveal that students when pressured with a grade are less likely to be motivated and/or would be more likely to perform as best as possible.

School Voice Report 2016

Quaglia Institute for Student Voice

2016

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

A deep survey-driven research study into all the elements of student and teacher voice, finding that students - starting in third grade - benefit from ample voice in the classroom and curriculum.

The Impact of High-stakes Testing on the Learning Environment

Ritt

2016

Eliminating Standardized Testing

Standardized testing is linked to the over-testing of ELL students, teachers losing relationships with their students, and a narrowing / loss of the curriculum for multiple subjects.

The Economic Cost of Attending Educational Conferences

Rowe

2019

Supporting Teachers and PD Reform

An analysis of UK conference costs (academic, scientific, etc.) - finding that individual costs and environmental impact are likely unsustainable vs their (often marginal) implementation rates.

An Action Research on Project-Based Learning and Understanding by Design and Their Effects on the Science Achievement and Attitude of Science Students

Rubrica

2018

Experiential Learning

Study follows 6th grade science students on a traditional and PBL track, and finds that students in a PBL setting had better academic, motivational, and attitudinal outcomes.

STEM Students on the Stage (SOS): Promoting Student Voice and Choice in STEM Education Through an Interdisciplinary, Standards-focused, Project Based Learning Approach

Sahin

2015

Experiential Learning

Showcases how design-based science programs (experiential education & project-based learning) have a positive correlation with STEM teaching.

UDL: A Blueprint for Learning Success

Salend & Whittaker

2017

General

An overview of Universal Design for Learning and how we must design learning experiences for all learners.

How the Amount of Time Spent on Independent Reading Affects Reading Achievement: A Response to the National Reading Panel

Samuels & Wu

2004

Promoting Literacy

Showcases that students, when given ample time to read, show significant gains in achievement (as opposed to "reading activities.")

Adolescents’ purpose in life and engagement in risky behaviors: Differences by gender and ethnicity

Sayles

1995

Purpose-Finding

Students who scored low in having a life purpose and/or meaning were significantly more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as using dangerous drugs or drinking and driving.

Early Childhood Curiosity and Kindergarten Reading and Math Academic Achievement

Shah et. al.

2018

Cooperation and Soft Skills

Finds linkages between curiosity and equitable outcomes, framed around traditional assessment

The Blue Blood is Bad Right?

Simon

2012

General

A story about the importance of curiosity in education.

The Whiteness of Math Education Will Never Be Changed Without Teaching Math History — Properly

Singh

2018

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

Details on changing the white-centric mathematics curriculum.

Let's Declare Education a Disaster and Get On with Our Lives

Smith

1995

Ungrading

A look at how grading and modern educational practices have disempowered students and educators.

Assessing does not mean threatening: The purpose of assessment as a key determinant of girls’ and boys’ performance in a science class

Souchal

2014

Ungrading

A small study which demonstrates how competitive grading of tests led to perceptions on gender-based performance.

Implementing restorative justice

State of Illinois

N.D.

Restorative Justice

Field guide for educators to implement restorative justice techniques at school.

Creativity as a Habit

Sternberg

2007

Cooperation and Soft Skills

An argument against "teaching to the test" and instead promoting practice that focus on creativity.

Student-Led Conferences: An Alternative Reporting Method

Taylor-Patel

2011

Ungrading

An analysis of how successful student-led conferences can be for the development of a child. A specific framework is outlined to acknowledge true success, with warnings detailed on how false or unprepared presentations can decrease learning goals.

Teach SDGs, Resources

TeachSDGs

2020

Experiential Learning

Implementation strategies for the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, with projects for students.

Social Justice Standards

Teaching Tolerance

2016

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

A framework for schools to share power with learners and fight inequalities.

A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning

Thomas

2000

Experiential Learning

Summarizes the research on project-based learning from 2010 and before, its benefits and challenges.

Self-Determination and Persistence in a Real-Life Setting: Toward a Motivational Model of of High School Dropout

Vallerand et. al.

1997

Self-Determination

Showcases how self-determination and understanding/emphasizing one's own drive for learning is correlated with one's desire to stay in school.

Seeing things differently: restorative justice and school discipline

Varnham

2005

Restorative Justice

Heavily researched account of why restorative justice is needed in school.

Seeing things differently: restorative justice and school discipline

Varnham

2006

Restorative Justice

A look at how foreign countries use restorative justice and its implications for United States practice.

Promoting Students’ Self-Directed Learning Ability through Teaching Mathematics for Social Justice

Voss & Rickards

2016

General

When students engaged in mathematics through a social justice lens - looking at math through a real world lens to help others - they learned and engaged more in the subject.

Restorative Justice in Everyday Life: Beyond the Formal Ritual

Wachtel

1999

Restorative Justice

Outlines how to deal with offending behavior without demeaning or destroying someone's reputation or furthering harm.

The Importance of Play

Whitebread

2012

Free Play

A full report and collection of research supporting why play is insurmountably important for young people.

The Experience of Education: The impacts of high stakes testing on school students and their families

Wyn

2014

Eliminating Standardized Testing

Educational study from Australian state standardized testing that concludes high stakes testing is not for the best interests of children.

The Little Book of Restorative Justice

Zehr

2003

Restorative Justice

Every facet of restorative justice, including its definition and how it needs to be implemented in society.

What Works May Hurt: Side-Effects in Education

Zhao

2013

General

Zhao makes the important case for understanding what he calls the “side-effects” of educational interventions to help us understand that “what works may hurt."

Two decades of havoc: A synthesis of criticism against PISA

Zhao

2020

Eliminating Standardized Testing

Makes a compelling summary of the main criticisms against the Programme for International Student Assessment, more commonly known as PISA, as well as the consequences of taking PISA at its word and reshaping the educational systems of the world in its image

PISA Peculiarities (4): High Test Scores, Low Life Satisfaction

Zhao

2020

Eliminating Standardized Testing

An analysis of how even though PISA tests don’t seem to be aligned with life satisfaction in countries.

Toward a Worldwide Culture of Love

hooks

2018

General

An article detailing why love is needed in educational settings to transform practice.

Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom

hooks

1994

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

A collection of essays on school, gender, race, and their intersectionalities - hooks analyzes how teaching can liberate.

Confronting Class in the Classroom

hooks

1994

Critical Pedagogy and Equity

An analysis of how class differences impact student behaviors at school.