Critical Pedagogy and Equity

Please report broken links to us. Paid resources are noted with **. Note: all research should be looked at through a critical lens, there is no denying that many research studies fail to be replicated or have mixed results.


Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Freire, Paulo. 1970/1993 (update).

  • The basis of "critical pedagogy" - analyzing how the teacher/student relationship has become similar to colonization models, and our need for teachers to work "with" students rather than "at" students.

Education for Critical Consciousness**. Freire, Paulo. 1973/2013 (update).

  • Further inquiry into the concept of "critical pedagogy" and how one's perspective and life situation needs a raised consciousness to understand and change the system they're apart of.

On Critical Pedagogy**. Giroux, Henry. 2011.

  • A rejection of the empirical concept of teaching, Giroux analyzes how students have become more like customers than learners.

Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom**. hooks, bell. 1994.

  • A collection of essays on school, gender, race, and their intersectionalities - hooks analyzes how teaching can liberate.

Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools.** Kozol, Jonathan. 1991.

  • A discussion of the disparities of schools between different classes and races in the United States.

Learning from Latino Teachers**. Ochoa, Gilda. 2007.

  • Stories and research surrounding creating equitable schools from the perspective of Latinx teachers and Latrinx student populations.


The “New Racism” of K-12 Schools: Centering Critical Research on Racism**. Kohli, Rita, Pizarro, Marcos, and Nevárez, Arturo. American Educational Research Association. 2017.

  • An overview of 186 research studies in K-12 that demonstrate “new racism” - hidden racism within schools in the curriculum and systemic practices.

Funds of Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms. Moll et. al. Theory into Practice. 1992.

  • Study of “participatory pedagogy” - where families and the community were brought into educational framework, establishing a symbiotic relationship of teacher/community/parent/guardian.


Education, Politics, and Social Transformation. Apple, Michael. University of Wisconsin. 2006.

  • Summary of how identity and social empowerment connect with (for positive and negative reasons) school.

From Safe Spaces to Brave Spaces: A New Way to Frame Dialogue Around Diversity and Social Justice. Arao, Brian & Clemens, Kristi. The Art of Effective Facilitation. 2013.

  • How to create a safe place at school for deep dialogue, inclusion, and meaning.

“They Thought the World Was Flat?” Bain, Robert. In How Students Learn: History, Mathematics, and Science in the Classroom. 2005.

  • A history educator comments how to pair traditional history standards, which often exclude and focus on memorization, by analyzing the curriculum and the story education wants to tell.

The “Banking” Concept of Education. Freire, Paulo. 1968.

  • Details how the view of students as passive receivers of information can corrupt and misalign the goals of the education system.

Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education. Ladson-Billings, Gloria & Tate IV, William F. Teachers College Record. 1995.

  • An overview of understanding school inequity through the lens of race, including arguments of law and social studies.

A Different Way of Viewing History teaching. Neumann, Dave. National Council for the Social Studies. 2010.

  • A guide to how historical content should be framed to make learning relevant and how large-scale, long-duration changes shape the human experience.