The Human Restoration Project explores a variety of progressive thought to establish a mode of thinking that enables all learners toward humanity through passion, service, and empowerment. We welcome criticism and remain open to dialogue on expanding our viewpoints further.
By infusing elements of experiential education, critical pedagogy, and cooperative learning, students are empowered through self-actualization, empowerment, inquiry toward real-world problems, and developing passion in life. Schooling should seek authentic discourse in recognizing student perspectives, asserting their community, and actualizing their dreams.
We want to transform public schools but not dismantle viable options for all learners.
The following is our collection of research surrounding progressive education. Need to convince a traditional educator? Looking to back up your own research? In doubt? Check out the vast amount of information out there. Please report broken links to us. Materials are sorted to the most relevant topic, but many overlap. Paid resources are noted as **. Note: all research should be looked at through a critical lens, there is no denying that many research studies fail to be replicated or have mixed results.
Progressive Instructional Practices
Classrooms: Goals, Structures, and Student Motivation. Ames, Carole. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1992.
Details how a focus on purposeful and meaningful education naturally lends itself to mastery and student motivation.
Experience and Education. Dewey, John. 1938.
A fundamental overview of experiential learning and one of the originators of progressive education.
The Psychology of a Child**. Piaget, Jean & Inhelder, Barbel. 1969.
Outlines stages of a child's development and recognizes ways educators (and parents) can positively reinforce their learning.
Classroom Social Experiences as Predictors of Academic Performance. Flook, Lisa. Repetti, Rena. Ullman, Jodie. Developmental Psychology. 2005.
Study shows how lack of peer acceptance in 4th grade led to increasingly negative academic outcomes to 6th grade (and possibly beyond), identifying a need for teachers to build relationships between students.
Curriculum Integration: Designing the Core of Democratic Education**.Beane, James. 1997.
A look at how schools can integrate all subjects into one core curriculum through the use of a democratic education.
Creative Schools**. Robinson, Ken. Aronica, Lou. Penguin Publishing Group. 2016.
A summary of why education needs to change due to stifling inaccuracies of standardization and the antiquation of the school model.
Choices for Children. Kohn, Alfie. Phi Delta Kappan. 1993.
Makes the case for students having a voice in the classroom, with research showcasing how this leads to greater learning outcomes.
The Truth About Self-Esteem. Kohn, Alfie. Phi Delta Kappan. 1994.
Research that showcases how a student's focus on self-esteem (via congratulations or grades) takes away from learning outcomes as a whole as all focused is placed on the individual, and has little effect on a student's actual self-worth.
Who's Asking? Kohn, Alfie. Educational Leadership. 2015.
A look at how questioning is used in schools, including their intent and purpose.
The Lives of Children: The Story of the First Street School**. Dennison, George. 1999.
An inspiring look at how Dennison leads students towards positive outcomes through an authentic "human" education at the First Street School.
The Smartest Kids in the World**. Ripley, Amanda. Simon & Schuster. 2013.
An analysis of American teenagers taking classes for a year in three countries: Finland, South Korea, and Poland, and how these systems conflict with and resonate with progressive educators in the United States.
Children's Need to Know: Curiosity in Schools**. Engel, Susan. Harvard Educational Review. 2011.
An essay supporting the need for children's inquiry, socialization, and natural curiosity to be embraced and focused on by schools.
The Blue Blood is Bad Right? Simon, Katherine. Research and Theory on Human Development. 2012.
A story about the importance of curiosity in education.
Addicted to Reform**. Morrow, John. The New Press. 2017.
A 12-step framework to moving away from more grueling standards and a "back to basics approach" to a progressive education that cares about children.
The Value of Play I: The definition of play gives insights. Gray, Peter. Freedom to Learn. 2008.
Outlines the need and practice of play in schools, including its benefits and definition as "play."
Square pegs in round holes: The mainstream schooling experiences of students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and their parents. Harrington, Caitlin. The University of Queensland. 2014.
This extensive study of ADHD students in school realizes that ADHD students are often not included or individualized for at school, nor are they readily accepted. It calls on the need for more individualization for every student.
The Passionate Learner: How Teachers and Parents Can Help Children Reclaim the Joy of Discovery**. Fried, Robert. 2002.
Various examples and stories are provided on how one can incorporate curiosity into their classroom.
Free School Teaching: A Journey into Radical Progressive Education**. Morrison, Kristan. 2007.
A look at a free school in Albany, New York, and the practices that occur that help to radically change students' lives.
Similar to Holt's and John Taylor Gatto's writings against school, this modern work showcases how students are not adequately prepared for the future via traditional schooling.
Awash in a Sea of Standards. Marzano Robert & Kendall, John. McREL. 1998.
Demonstrates that it would take 22 years of schooling to hit every core subject area class' standards.
Endangered Minds: Why Children Don't Think - and What We Can Do About It**. Healy, Jane. 1999.
Summary of how video games, educational TV shows (and TV in general), and other forms of gratification - although fun - can have hampering results on children to stay focused if done in excess.
Engaging by design: How engagement strategies in popular computer and video games can inform instructional design. Dickey, MD. Educational Technology Research and Development. 2005.
An outline of how game design mechanics could be used to envision and design classroom practices.
Student-Led Conferences: An Alternative Reporting Method. Taylor-Patel, Cherie. The University of Auckland. 2011.
An analysis of how successful student-led conferences can be for the development of a child. A specific framework is outlined to acknowledge true success, with warnings detailed on how false or unprepared presentations can decrease learning goals. This is an incredibly in-depth work, we specifically suggest Chapter 4C (Development of Competencies) and Chapter 5 (Beliefs of Parents/Teachers/Students).
Grading / Gradeless Learning
The Relations of Learning and Grade Orientations to Academic Performance. Beck, H. P., Rorrer-Woody, S., & Pierce, L. G. Teaching of Psychology. 1991.
Study that showcases how people with a mindset of "grading orientation" (focused on grades) perform worse in terms of GPA and general psychology testing as opposed to those with a "learning orientation" (focused on learning.)
Quality of Learning With an Active Versus Passive Motivational Set**. Benware, Carl, Deci, Edward American Educational Research Journal. 1984.
Presents data that students who knew they were going to teach information (active learning) were more motivated, learned more, and felt more engaged than those who simply passively received information.
A Second Look at Grading and Classroom Performance: Report of a Research Study**. Moeller, Aleidine J., Reschke, Claus Modern Language Journal. 1993.
Data found shows that there was no additional motivation from grading for any test performance.
Motivation and Cheating During Adolescence. Anderman, Eric, et al. American Educational Research Association. 1997.
Study shows that students who see assessment as a test of performance and extrinsic incentives, rather than mastery and improvement, are more likely to cheat.
Task-Involving and Ego-Involving Properties of Evaluation: Effects of Different Feedback Conditions on Motivational Perceptions, Interest, and Performance. Butler, Ruth. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1987.
When giving feedback, no grades with purely written or oral comments for improvement had the highest impact on continued motivation of students.
Enhancing and Undermining Intrinsic Motivation: The Effects of Task-Involving and Ego-Involving Evaluation of Interest and Performance. Butler, Ruth. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1988.
Similar to Butler's first study, no grades with purely written or oral comments for improvement continued motivation for all students, whereas only students who received high grades for graded assessment had continued motivation.
Autonomy in Children's Learning: An Experimental and Individual Difference Investigation. Grolnick, Wendy, Ryan, Richard. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1987.
When two groups of students were presented with controlling vs. non-controlled learning, those in a non-controlled (and more autonomous) environment had greater learning outcomes and motivation.
The Trouble with Rubrics. Kohn, Alfie. English Journal. 2006.
Shows that standardization of learning for student outcomes as well as the focus on achieving rather than learning is detrimental to students.
The Case Against Grades. Kohn, Alfie. Educational Leadership. 2011.
Various facets that demonstrate how grading has a negative impact on learning.
Competitive Grading Sabotages Good Teaching. Krumboltz, John. Yeh, Christine. Phi Delta Kappan. 1996.
Showcases the negative effects of grading on classroom learning.
Response to Assessment Feedback: The Effects of Grades, Praise, and Source of Information. Lipnevich, Anastasiya. Smith, Jeffrey. ETS. 2008.
Detailed feedback without grades was shown to have the most improvement on future student work.
Failing Grades for Retention. Natriello, Gary. School Superintendents Association. 1998.
Demonstrates how there is a negative correlation between low grades and retaining students.
Why Grades Engender Performance-Avoidance Goals: The Mediating Role of Autonomous Motivation. Pulfrey, Caroline. Buchs, Celine. American Psychological Association. 2011.
Multiple experiments reveal that students when pressured with a grade are less likely to be motivated and/or would be more likely to perform as best as possible.
Let's Declare Education a Disaster and Get On with Our Lives**. Smith, Frank. Phi Delta Kappan. 1995.
A look at how grading and modern educational practices have disempowered students and educators
Self-Determination and Persistence in a Real-Life Setting: Toward a Motivational Model of of High School Dropout. Vallerand, Robert. Fortier, Michelle. Guay, Frederic. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1997.
A research study that showcases how self-determination and understanding/emphasizing one's own drive for learning is correlated with one's desire to stay in school.
Motivation and Education: The Self-Determination Perspective. Deci, Edward et al. Educational Psychologist. 1991.
An overview of self-determination theory and how its incorporation in school showcases a heavily increased level of learning.
Assessing does not mean threatening: The purpose of assessment as a key determinant of girls’ and boys’ performance in a science class. Souchal, Carine et. al. British Journal of Educational Psychology. 2014.
A small study which demonstrates how competitive grading of tests led to perceptions on gender-based performance.
Grading Hampers Cooperative Information Sharing in Group Problem Solving. Hayek, Anne-Sophie et. al. Solvay Brussels School Economics & Management. 2015.
Experiment demonstrates how when members of a group knew that their contribution would be visible and graded, they shared less relevant information, in comparison to someone who was not expecting a contribution grade.
Do Grades Shape Students' School Engagement? The Psychological Consequences of Report Card Grades at the Beginning of Secondary School. Poorthuis, Astrid et. al. Journal of Educational Psychology. 2015.
Students who were presented their grade cards halfway through the year showcased decreased motivation, engagement, and performance after receiving a low marking.
Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning**. Hattie, John. 2012.
Showcases how when students track their own progress, they are much more likely to be empowered and take more information away from a lesson.
Student Self-Assessment: The Key to Stronger Student Motivation and Higher Achievement. McMillan, James & Hearn, Jessica. educational HORIZONS. 2008.
A summary overview of self-assessment and its usage in the classroom, including tendencies toward mastery and reflective thinking. Provides multiple stages of implementation, a lengthy amount of research studies, and highlights the benefits of its usage. Especially noted are the benefits to intrinsic motivation as a result of taking control of one’s learning.
Peer / Self Assessment and Student Learning. Ndoye, Abdou. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. 2017.
Demonstrates the efficacy of using self (and peer) reflection through sampled graduate students. Not only did students have increased academic performance, but also higher motivation, understanding of the purpose of the course, and a more supportive learning environment.
Assessment Matters: Self-Assessment and Peer Assessment. Ako, Wahanga. The University of Waikato. 2012.
Guides both peer- and self- assessment, showcasing best practice in both of its utilizations. The overview emphasizes the need for change in the core structure of teaching - placing more responsibility on learners rather than the instructor.
Student and peer assessment in action. Logan, Elaine. University of Cumbria. 2009.
Findings demonstrate that although peer and self assessment initially take a long period to implement (requiring time for reflection and general unfamiliarity), students have fundamental gains in self-critical leading.
Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and Student Perspective. Nowacki, Amy. Frontiers in Psychology. 2013.
Based on doctoral candidates, students who received a traditional portfolio grade had reduced stress and moderately higher overall grades, but felt less affirmation and self-assurance on their skill (exemplifying the need for constant feedback and the peril that grading has on our students.)
Testing a Model of School Learning: Direct and Indirect Effects on Academic Achievement**. Cool, Valerie. Keith, Timothy. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 1991.
Motivation, ability, and quality of instruction were found to all have important outcomes to a student's success in school, however, homework was found to be negligible or even counterproductive.
When is Homework Worth the Time?: Evaluating the Association Between Homework and Achievement in High School Science and Math. Maltese, Adam. Tai, Robert. The High School Journal. 2012.
States that mathematics and science homework had only significant relevance to standardized testing, not obtaining high grades in a classroom - the implication being that homework's negative impact on students is only helping on standardized tests.
National Differences, Global Similarities: World Culture and the Future of Schooling.** Baker, David & LeTendre, Gerald. 2005.
Study finds that American middle school students have more homework than their peers in Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. However, this did not correlate with any achievement: test scores were highest for countries assigning the least homework (Denmark, Czech Republic) and lowest for those with the most (Iran, Thailand.)
Testing a Model of School Learning. Contemporary Educational Policy. Cool, Valerie & Keith, Timothy. 1991.
Analyzed hundreds of high school student responses to the value of homework in relation to their success. After factoring in quality of instruction, motivation, and class choices, found that homework had no meaningful effect on achievement
End Homework Now. Educational Leadership. Etta Kralovec & John Buell. 2001.
A series of studies on how homework impacts family life which found that parents felt their children needed to complete homework, but it resulted in a loss of important family time. In addition, over 50% of subjects noted that homework led to stress, struggle, and serious familial arguments.
Does Homework Really Improve Achievement? Arkansas Tech University. Costley, Kevin. 2013.
An analysis of many homework studies which finds that homework has marginal gains at best, and only at higher grade levels.
Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Freire, Paulo. 1970/1993 (update).
The basis of "critical pedagogy" - analyzing how the teacher/student relationship has become similar to colonization models, and our need for teachers to work "with" students rather than "at" students.
Education for Critical Consciousness**. Freire, Paulo. 1973/2013 (update).
Further inquiry into the concept of "critical pedagogy" and how one's perspective and life situation needs a raised consciousness to understand and change the system they're apart of.
The “Banking” Concept of Education. Freire, Paulo. 1968.
Details how the view of students as passive receivers of information can corrupt and misalign the goals of the education system.
Teaching to Transgress: Education as the Practice of Freedom**. hooks, bell. 1994.
A collection of essays on school, gender, race, and their intersectionalities - hooks analyzes how teaching can liberate.
On Critical Pedagogy**. Giroux, Henry. 2011.
A rejection of the empirical concept of teaching, Giroux analyzes how students have become more like customers than learners.
Education, Politics, and Social Transformation. Apple, Michael. University of Wisconsin. 2006.
Summary of how identity and social empowerment connect with (for positive and negative reasons) school.
Removal of Standardized Testing
The Development and Impact of High Stakes Testing**. Natriello, Gary. Pallas, Aaron. 1999.
A history of high stakes testing in the United States which calls for a movement away from standardized testing as there is plausible research that shows ethnic and gender demotivation casual links to academic struggles on these tests.
The Impact of High-stakes Testing on the Learning Environment. Ritt, Maddolyn. School of Social Work. 2016.
Standardized testing is linked to the over-testing of ELL students, teachers losing relationships with their students, and a narrowing / loss of the curriculum for multiple subjects.
How Children Succeed**. Tough, Paul. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 2012.
A detailed argument surrounding how intelligence should be assessed through "soft skills" rather than traditional grading and testing.
The Effect of High-Stakes Testing on Student Motivation and Learning. Amrein, Audrey. Berliner, David. Educational Leadership. 2003.
Study shows that high-stakes testing has made no improvement to students' learning, actually demotivating and hurting outcomes.
The Impact of High-Stakes Exams on Students and Teachers. New York State Education Department. 2004.
Although this study suggests that "academic achievement" has increased as a result of state testing, it notes that it depends on what one regards as "achievement" (note: it means traditional standards) and emphasizes that teacher autonomy has decreased significantly (as well as the cost of state testing).
The Experience of Education: The impacts of high stakes testing on school students and their families. Wyn, Johanna. Turnbull, Malcolm. Grimshaw, Lyndall. Whitlam Institute. 2014.
Educational study from Australian state standardized testing (similar to the US) that concludes that high stakes testing is not for the best interests of children.
High-Stakes Testing and Student Achievement: Problems for the No Child Left Behind Act. Nichols, Sharon. Glass, Gene. Berliner, David. The Great Lakes Center for Education Research & Practice. 2005.
High-stakes testing is shown to have absolutely no effect on student learning and study concludes that this style of testing should be removed.
The Testing Culture and the Persistence of High Stakes Testing Reforms.Moses, Michele. Nanna, Michael. Education and Culture. 2007.
Argument against the "high stakes testing culture" and its dangers to the educational curricula.
The Impact of a Junior High School Community Intervention Project: Moving Beyond the Testing Juggernaut and Into a Community of Creative Learners. Nelson, Larry, McMahan, Sarah, & Torres, Tacia. School Community Journal. 2012.
Demonstrates how bringing in the surrounding community can increase morale, relationships, and lower absence rates. Overall, community involvement showed drastic increases in a measurement of "school culture" - which was adverse to the demands of standardized testing.
The Little Book of Restorative Justice. Zehr, Howard. Gohar, Ali. Good Books. 2003.
Every facet of restorative justice, including its definition and how it needs to be implemented in society.
Implementing restorative justice. State of Illinois. n.d.
Field guide for educators to implement restorative justice techniques at school.
Beyond Discipline. Kohn, Alfie. Education Week. 1996.
An overview of progressive discipline practices and importance of proper classroom management techniques.
Discipline is the Problem - Not the Solution. Kohn, Alfie. Learning Magazine. 1995.
An internal look at how educators need to consider the task that students misbehave on, rather than how they're misbehaving.
Restorative Justice in Schools. Hopkins, Belinda. Support for Learning. 2002.
How to use restorative justice in the classroom with research to back up its practice.
Seeing things differently: restorative justice and school discipline. Varnham, Sally. Education and the Law. 2005.
Heavily researched account of why restorative justice is needed in school.
Seeing things differently: restorative justice and school discipline**. Varnham, Sally. Education and the Law. 2006.
A look at how foreign countries use restorative justice and its implications for United States practice.
Restorative Justice in Everyday Life: Beyond the Formal Ritual. Wachtel, Ted. International Institute for Restorative Practices. 1999.
Outlines how to deal with offending behavior without demeaning or destroying someone's reputation or furthering harm.
Data showcasing how 6th grade students performed just as well on standardized tests via PBL-delivery vs. traditional-delivery. Research also showcases that students learned more skills via PBL-delivery.
Project-Based Learning for the 21st Century: Skills for the Future. Bell, Stephanie. Taylor & Francis Group. 2010.
An overview of how project-based learning can be used for various "soft skill" sets.
STEM Students on the Stage (SOS): Promoting Student Voice and Choice in STEM Education Through an Interdisciplinary, Standards-focused, Project Based Learning Approach**. Sahin, Alphaslan. Top, Namik. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research. 2015.
Showcases how design-based science programs (experiential education & project-based learning) have a positive correlation with STEM teaching.
Motivating Project-Based Learning: Sustaining the Doing, Supporting the Learning. Blumenfeld et al. 1991.
A full review of project-based learning, its importance to education and motivation, and how to incorporate it into a classroom.
The New Education**. Davidson, Cathy. 2017.
A study of how higher education needs to embrace creative learning, which could easily be applied to all educational practice.
A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning. Thomas, John. 2000.
Summarizes the current (2000) research on project-based learning, its benefits and challenges.
Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside of School. Anderson et al. Reading Research Quarterly. 1998.
Study shows the impact on learning and achievement associating with book reading and implores teachers to issue more reading outside of school (note: not forced reading of certain things).
Keeping Score. Chenoweth, Karin. School Library Journal. 2001.
Overview of how competitive scoring of reading programs can diminish the reading goals of the program.
Free Voluntary Reading: New Research, Applications, and Controversies. Krashen, Stephen. RELC. 2004.
Research surrounding the importance of giving silent reading time during the day to students where one chooses if and what to read, including massive benefits in learning all around.
How the Amount of Time Spent on Independent Reading Affects Reading Achievement: A Response to the National Reading Panel**. Samuels, Jay & Wu, Yi-Chen. University of Minnesota.
Study showcases that students, when given ample time to read, show significant gains in achievement (as opposed to "reading activities.")
Beating the Odds: Teaching Middle and High School Students to Read and Write Well. Langer, Judith. National Research Center on Learning & Achievement. 2000.
Extensive research that demonstrates that deeper thinking, extensive discussion, deep-reading of text, and experiential learning outperformed traditional schools focused on test prep on critical thinking and learning.
Examining the Effects of a School-wide Reading Culture on the Engagement of Middle School Students. Daniels, Erika & Steres, Michael. RMLE. 2011.
This research shows a connection between motivation, reading, and academic success in school.
Readicide**. Gallagher, Kelly. 2009.
A well-written account of how school programs that are meant to encourage reading actually hinder and destroy a love of reading, in-turn decreasing reading comprehension.
Recess: Its Role in Education and Development**. Pellegrini, Anthony. 2005.
Detailed study on the importance of recess (and breaks in general) and why overscheduling is dangerous for our students
De-stressing Stress: The Power of Mindsets and the Art of Stressing Mindfully. Crum, Alia & Lyddy, Chris. The Handbook of Mindfulness. 2013.
Guide on the meaning of mindfulness and its importance to everyone's lives.
Mindfulness Practices and Children's Emotional and Mental Well-Being. Peacock, Jennifer. Brock University. 2015.
A heavily researched account on the benefits of mindfulness in the classroom, from statistical data to actual examples of practice.
Mindfulness for Students Classified with Emotional/Behavior Disorder. Malow, Micheline & Vance, Austin. Manhattanville College. 2016.
An investigation into utilizing mindfulness in the classroom among adolescents that showcased increased "personal mastery" of content.
The Effects of Mindfulness on Students' Attention. Bringus, Rose. St. Catherine University. 2016.
Although data showed that students didn't necessarily pay attention more using mindfulness techniques (which may be the implementation of the study), students demonstrated a desire for these techniques taught.
"Soft Skills" and Community
Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals. Duckworth, Angela et al. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2007.
Research shows how grit is a general indicator of success. Notably, however, is that grit is defined as a individual's perseverance and a passion for a long-term goal.
Making Cooperative Learning Work. Johnson, David. Johnson, Roger. Theory into Practice. 1999.
Discusses implementation of cooperative learning, which is shown to have greater outcomes in student achievement than competitive learning.
Is Competition Ever Appropriate in a Cooperative Classroom? Kohn, Alfie. Cooperative Learning Magazine. 1993.
A case is made that students should never be put in a competitive environment in schools.
Creativity as a Habit. Sternberg, Robert. Education Week. 2007.
An argument against "teaching to the test" and instead promoting practice that focus on creativity.
Deep, Deep, Deep Inside We're All Friends. McGraw, Sheila. Rhode Island College. 2012.
A study that involves a group of 2nd grade girls and how schools interact with their relationship building. Suggestions are made to make learning more collaborative, with more authentic time given to developing relationships.
Community in the Classroom: An Approach to Curriculum and Instruction as a Means for the Development of Student Cognitive, Social and Emotional Engagement in a High School Classroom. Jones, Tammy. University of Hawai'i. 2012.
A detailed analysis of how relationship building - specifically a focus on social and emotional engagement - led to drastically increased academic performance.
Understanding the pathways to purpose: Examining personality and well-being correlates across adulthood. Hill, Patrick, Sumner, Rachel & Burrow, Anthony. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2014.
Notes that those who are proactive at finding their purpose in life have greater emotional/social well-being, as well as a greater agency in comparison to those whose purpose came about on its own.
The Development of Purpose During Adolescence. Damon, William, Menon, Jenni, & Cotton Bronk, Kendall. Applied Developmental Science. 2003.
A summary of pitfalls in the research of purpose-finding as well as the current research that exists in the field.
Character strengths predict subjective well-being during adolescence. Gillham, Jane, et. al. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2011.
Research finds that 9th and 10th grade students had greater life satisfaction and less depressive symptoms when they found meaning and love in their lives.
Adolescents’ purpose in life and engagement in risky behaviors: Differences by gender and ethnicity. Sayles, Martha. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. 1995.
Students who scored low in having a life purpose and/or meaning were significantly more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as using dangerous drugs or drinking and driving.
The role of purpose in life in healthy identity formation: A grounded model. Cotton Bronk, Kendall. New Directions for Student Leadership. 2012.
Adolescents had incredibly close ties between their purpose and identity. When teenagers understood their place in the world, they took more purposeful actions and understood more about who they were.
Persevering with Positivity and Purpose: An Examination of Purpose Commitment and Positive Affect as Predictors of Grit. Cotton Bronk, Kendall, Hill, Patrick, & Burrow, Anthony. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2014.
Grit - as in working hard to achieve your goals - had substantial correlation with those who had life direction and commitment to a purpose.
Buffering the Negative Impact of Poverty on Youth: The Power of Purpose in Life. Machell, Kyla, Disabato, David, & Kashdan, Todd. Soc Indic Res. 2016.
Teenagers who live in poverty, who often face increased antisocial and decreased prosocial behavior, can alleviate and escape from these mindsets by finding a purpose in life - developing skills to achieve in spite of adversity.
The Discovery of the Child**. Montesorri, Maria. 1986 (translation).
An introduction to the "Montesorri Method" - a fully peer-taught and choice-based curriculum employed in Montesorri schools throughout the world.
What do I do Monday? Holt, John. 1995.
An overview of Holt's methodology of best teaching practice, encouraging students to learn on their own.
How Children Fail. Holt, John. Penguin Education. 1964.
This book analyzes how traditional education has led to the destruction of learning by students, ruining their natural sense of discovery they were born with.
The Role of Goal Orientation in Self-Regulated Learning. Pintrich, Paul. Academic Press. 2000.
An overview of how self-regulated learning should be coordinated in a classroom for greater student outcomes.
The Unschooled Mind**. Gardner, Howard. Basic Books. 2011.
An overview of how current instructional practices go against the natural patterns of learning, with suggestions on how to reconstruction schools.
Less-structured time in children's daily lives predicts self-directed executive functioning. Barker et al. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014.
Study shows how children, when left alone to develop their own structure, are better at self-directed processes in the future.
A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Moffitt et al. PNAS. 2011.
Details how low self-control in life leads to overall decreased opportunities and outcomes. The study suggests that universal programs and steps be taken to increase the teaching of self-control/direction from a young age.
Classroom Applications of Research on Self-Regulated Learning. Paris, Scott & Paris, Alison. Educational Psychologist. 2001.
This research study overviews each practice teachers can take to increase self-regulated and determination in their classroom for the benefit of students.
Books of the Month
The following are our curated readings for each month. Each of these resources would be fantastic for any progressive educator to reflect on.
This Is Not a Test: A New Narrative on Race, Class, and Education by José Luis Vilson
An important look at the issues of diversity in education, not giving up on one’s kids, and how we can empower all voices within schools.
An incredibly detailed account of how our obsession with “job-readiness” in schools has perilous effects on the education system.
Timeless Learning: How Imagination, Observation, and Zero-Based Thinking Change Schools by Ira Socol, Pam Moran, & Chad Ratliff
A guided, discussive, and narrative-based reading on how imagining school with a blank slate allows for progressive reform.
On Being a Teacher by Jonathan Kozol
An analysis of the historically oppressed and their education, and how we can revolutionize a classroom through subversive rebellion.
These Schools Belong to You and Me: Why We Can't Afford to Abandon Our Public Schools by Deborah Meier & Emily Gasoi
A fundamental look at democratic schooling and how we can reimagine public schools to be equitable and empowering for all.
Teaching to Transgress by bell hooks
A summary of elements of critical pedagogy with a focus on feminism, racism, and forming progressive classrooms that empower students.
The author's journey working in the testing industry showcases how ridiculous, inaccurate, and manipulative testing is and how it should not ever be used for assessment.
Where You Go Is Not Who You'll Be by Frank Bruni
A description of the issue with rankings systems of universities in America and the false prestige our children hold them to.
Excellent Sheep by William Deresiewicz
In-depth details of how our society is hurting students who over-prepare and want to attend elite universities.
What School Could Be by Ted Dintersmith
Accounts by teachers and administrators in progressive schools in across America - displaying how to change education and the problems we're currently facing.
Originals by Adam Grant
Acknowledgement of how those who do not conform make major breakthroughs - a push for teachers to change the world.
The 80/20 Principle by Richard Koch
Summary of how our world is broken into 80/20 binaries and how we should utilize time accordingly.
The Smartest Kids in the World by Amanda Ripley
An analysis of perspectives of foreign exchange students in the US and abroad and how different schools are incorporating best practice.